Runas. Journal of Education and Culture https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about <p><strong>RUNAS. Journal of Education and Culture</strong>, ISSN 2737-6230, is a refereed academic journal that publishes 2 issues per year (January-July and August-December). Founded in 2020, it seeks to publish articles related to education and culture around the world, in terms of reality verification, since these fields are interrelated as key elements of the development of peoples. We welcome contributions from researchers, academics, and young students with a critical, contextual vision that contributes to the dissemination of the reality of the fields described, mainly in peripheral countries, and their reflection on the alternatives/possibility of liberation.</p> <p>*<em><strong>"RUNAS</strong>"</em> is a word that comes from the Kichwa language of the indigenous peoples of Ecuador, used to refer to human beings.</p> CICSHAL-RELIGACION. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA - RELIGACIÓN en-US Runas. Journal of Education and Culture 2737-6230 The Impact of Short Videos in the Listening Skills of Young Adults with A1 Level from UCACUE https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/150 <p>The use of short educational videos as a tool to enhance listening skills in adult learners has gained significant attention in recent years. This study aims to explore the effects of incorporating short everyday English videos into listening activities in university students from UCACUE, La Troncal extension. The research incorporates a comprehensive literature review to identify the theoretical foundations and justifications for using short videos in adult language education. The participants for this study are fifty undergraduate students from the Language Center at UCACUE, with a beginner English level (A1 course) divided into control and experimental. For gathering data, groups are evaluated through questionnaires and pre and post-tests, to obtain quantitative data. Similarly, to attain qualitative data, a survey is introduced to them for analyzing students’ perceptions regarding the implementation of Short Videos in Listening activities. The results of the study revealed a notable enhancement in listening performance, students’ motivation, and engagement for participants who were exposed to video materials compared to those who used traditional audio resources. Participants viewing videos scored higher in post-tests, signifying better comprehension. Consequently, the study concluded that integrating videos effectively enhances listening skills, marking multimedia as a potent tool for educational advancement.</p> Fresia Rojas Martha Magdalena Guamán Luna Copyright (c) 2023 Fresia Rojas, Martha Magdalena Guamán Luna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 5 9 e240150 e240150 10.46652/runas.v5i9.150 Aftermath of COVID-19 in the cooperative sector: an approach to its financial efficiency https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/157 <p>The study analyzed the financial efficiency of savings and credit cooperatives in segment 1 in Ecuador between 2017 and 2021. A quantitative approach was used, where the study participants were 40 financial cooperatives in segment 1. Metrics such as the profit margin were examined. intermediation of the average equity and the average asset, in addition to the delinquency of the microcredit portfolio and the total delinquency. A decrease in financial efficiency and an increase in delinquencies were observed in 2021, likely due to inefficient implementation of collection strategies. Despite the challenges of the pandemic, cooperatives adapted their credit strategies, maintaining controlled levels of delinquencies by demonstrating resilience and adaptability. The study highlights the importance of effective financial management and contingency strategies intimes of crisis.</p> Rodrigo Arturo Reyes Armas Rosa Marjorie Torres Briones Mayra Elizabeth García Bravo Ketty del Rocío Hurtado García Copyright (c) 2023 Rodrigo Arturo Reyes Armas, Rosa Marjorie Torres Briones, Mayra Elizabeth García Bravo, Ketty del Rocío Hurtado García https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 9 e240157 e240157 10.46652/runas.v5i9.157 Influence of Financial Cooperatives on the Well-being of Older Adults in Ambato: A Social Responsibility Approach https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/162 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The research problem focuses on the financial exclusion of older adults in Ambato, which impacts their well-being. The study aims to evaluate how financial cooperatives' social responsibility programs can improve the quality of life of this demographic group. A quantitative methodology was applied, which involved 367 older adults who maintain financial activities with the savings and credit cooperatives of segment 1 of the city of Ambato, in order to evaluate the effects of management practices. The findings highlight a strong elevation between the perception of the effectiveness of social programs and the economic status of the respondents. The study concludes that, although cooperatives are valued for their benefits, there is a public disconnection regarding their social activities. Better communication and transparency in social responsibility practices is recommended.</p> Pedro Enrique Díaz Córdova Juan Carlos Alarcón Gavilanes Fernando Javier Chico-Brito Carlos Santiago Masaquiza Caiza Copyright (c) 2023 Pedro Enrique Díaz Córdova, Juan Carlos Alarcón Gavilanes, Fernando Javier Chico-Brito, Carlos Santiago Masaquiza Caiza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 5 9 e240162 e240162 10.46652/runas.v5i9.162 Deficiency in the Mechanisms for the Implementation of the Comprehensive Reparation of the Victim in Theft Crimes https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/167 <p>Ecuador faces an alarming increase in theft cases, with 31,485 incidents recorded in 2022, marking a significant increase over the previous year. Despite the abundant literature on comprehensive reparations in criminal contexts, the specific focus on robbery remains underexplored. This research seeks to identify the impact of robbery on victims in Ecuador and to examine the lack of normative description of comprehensive reparation mechanisms. A descriptive methodology with a theoretical, qualitative and bibliographic design was employed. The analysis revealed that most victims of robbery do not receive comprehensive reparation due to the lack of adequate mechanisms for its execution, leaving them in a situation of helplessness and vulnerability. There is an urgent need to develop effective mechanisms to guarantee comprehensive reparation for victims of robbery in Ecuador and to improve the protection and support provided, thus ensuring justice and equity in the country’s criminal justice system.</p> Guadalupe Ayala Armijos Luis Manuel Carpio Flores Copyright (c) 2023 Guadalupe Ayala Armijos, Luis Manuel Carpio Flores https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-02 2024-04-02 5 9 e240167 e240167 10.46652/runas.v5i9.167 Remittances and economic impact in Ecuador’s Zone 7, period 2010-2021 https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/155 <p>This article presents a study of migration trends and the economic impact of remittances in Ecuador’s Zone 7. A documentary and descriptive research methodology was used to collect and analyze data from various written sources, and trends were visually represented through tables and line graphs. The results show that migration and remittances have had a significant impact on the local and national economy, and the implications of these findings for public policy and society in general are discussed.</p> Jorge Guido Sotomayor-Pereira Bernard César Macías Sares Nathaly Alexandra Belduma Víctor Manuel Jadán Sánchez Copyright (c) 2023 Jorge Guido Sotomayor-Pereira, Bernard César Macías Sares, Nathaly Alexandra Belduma, Víctor Manuel Jadán Sánchez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 5 9 e240155 e240155 10.46652/runas.v5i9.155 Assessment of the ecotourism potential in protected natural areas, case: Sumaco National Park – Napo – Galeras, province of Napo https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/165 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The province of Napo stands out as a popular tourist area due to its favorable climate, breathtaking scenery and varied service offerings. The growing development of sustainable tourism initiatives has raised the need to evaluate the potential of its natural areas for tourism. In this context, the present study focuses on evaluating the ecotourism potential of the Sumaco-Napo-Galeras National Park. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze the situation of the Ecuadorian prison system, identifying the deficiencies in the rehabilitation and social reinsertion programs offered to PPL. It seeks to determine whether the State is the main responsible for the prison crisis through the analysis of various bibliographic sources and the evaluation of its compliance with its legal and humanitarian obligations towards this vulnerable group. The methodology used consisted of weighting six evaluation variables proposed by Acosta (2008), using a focus group. Subsequently, a cluster analysis was conducted to identify the groups or profiles of visitors to the Sumaco-Napo-Galeras National Park. This approach allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of the ecotourism potential of the area. The results indicate that Sumaco-Napo-Galeras National Park has a high potential for ecotourism development. The natural landscapes offer optimal conditions for ecotourism, while the rich biodiversity of flora and fauna favors adventure tourism activities and promotes local cultural identity. However, some key challenges were identified, such as lack of access for vulnerable groups, low environmental awareness, scarce economic resources, and the need for greater cooperation among stakeholders involved in the park's tourism management. Sumaco-Napo-Galeras National Park has significant potential for ecotourism development. However, in order to take full advantage of this potential, it is essential to address the challenges identified and work together with all stakeholders involved in tourism management to ensure sustainable and equitable development in the region.</p> Byron Fernando Mejía Barreiros Jennifer Nathaly Marcillo Chasy Yonimiler Castillo Ortega Copyright (c) 2023 Byron Fernando Mejía Barreiros, Jennifer Nathaly Marcillo Chasy, Yonimiler Castillo Ortega https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 5 9 e240165 e240165 10.46652/runas.v5i9.165 Gender Influence on the Wage Gap: Study of the Latacunga Market in the Periods 2010-2020 https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/158 <p>The proposed article examines how the gender pay gap has impacted the labor market in Latacunga, Ecuador between 2010 and 2020. Deductive and historical methods were used to analyze statistical data from the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment (ENEMDU). The Oaxaca Blinder model was employed for data analysis. The study focuses on the impact of gender discrimination on wages and how factors like education and the number of children influence this gap. The findings indicate a persistent wage discrimination against women, suggesting that as men become more active in the labor market, their earnings increase compared to women. This study contributes to understanding gender dynamics in the labor market and proposes further research to address these disparities.</p> Carlos Alberto Parreño Herrera Mauricio Sebastián Parreño Rivera Copyright (c) 2023 Carlos Alberto Parreño Herrera, Mauricio Sebastián Parreño Rivera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-03 2024-01-03 5 9 e240158 e240158 10.46652/runas.v5i9.158 Detention for Investigative Purposes in the COIP, an Attack Against the Presumption of Innocence https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/166 <p>This research study examines the impact of the current regulations of the Comprehensive Organic Criminal Code (COIP) in order to balance the conduct of criminal investigations and the protection of the presumption of innocence in detentions to collaborate with prosecutorial investigations. It focuses on ensuring the safety of the inhabitants of Ecuadorian territory. Using a qualitative approach, perceptions and challenges related to the presumption of innocence were explored using inductive-deductive, dogmatic-legal and analytical-synthetic methods. The results reveal that deprivation of liberty violates this principle, representing a threat to individual rights in criminal investigations. The need to implement alternative measures to pretrial detention to safeguard the presumption of innocence and respect human rights is highlighted. It recommends the adoption of measures such as detention for investigative purposes to protect the integrity of investigations and the fundamental rights of individuals. In conclusion, it is emphasized that the presumption of innocence must be protected and strengthened as an essential pillar of modern judicial systems.</p> Lourdes Gisella Gómez Encalada Enrique Eugenio Pozo Cabrera Copyright (c) 2023 Lourdes Gisella Gómez Encalada, Enrique Eugenio Pozo Cabrera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 9 e240166 e240166 10.46652/runas.v5i9.166 Diagnosis of the use of flipped classrooms in English as a foreign language classes through teachers' perception in secondary education institutions in the city of Ambato https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/153 <p>The application of flipped classroom techniques in second language acquisition has garnered increasing attention due to its potential to enhance student academic performance and motivation at the secondary school level. This literature review examines existing research on flipped classrooms within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction, aiming to contextualize an investigation into teacher perceptions of adopting flipped models in Ambato public middle and high schools. By evaluating educator attitudes and experiences with Flipped EFL classrooms via surveys and interviews. This study intends to provide data-backed guidance to regional institutions and instructors on challenges, outcomes, best practices, and recommendations to enable effective implementation. With strong English proficiency closely tied to academic and career opportunities for Ambato youths, this research seeks to assess the viability of flipped techniques for optimizing local EFL pedagogy by spotlighting teacher-centered perspectives on friction points and successes in employing flipped learning.</p> José Andrés López Jordán Antonio Lenín Argudo Garzón Copyright (c) 2023 José Andrés López Jordán, Antonio Lenín Argudo Garzón https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 5 9 e240153 e240153 10.46652/runas.v5i9.153 The Effectiveness of Task-Based Language Teaching in Pronunciation Skills of Elementary Students https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/151 <p>This study aims to examine the efficacy of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) in improving the pronunciation abilities of children at the primary level. The research focuses on a significant but relatively unexplored area within language education. The research utilizes a pre-test and post-test approach, leveraging the Azure AI platform for pronunciation evaluation, with a cohort of 7th-grade participants. The Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) intervention has been shown to substantially improve several aspects of pronunciation, including accuracy, fluency, completeness, and prosody. The results emphasize the practical implications for language educators and curriculum designers and the need for specific pronunciation teaching, especially at the primary school level. The paper proposes including several assessment methodologies while also recognizing the dependence on the Azure AI platform. The study continues by highlighting the significance of further research, encouraging inquiries into implementing Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) in various linguistic settings, with varied groups of learners, and over prolonged periods. This study is a valuable contribution to the existing body of knowledge on language teaching approaches by providing valuable insights into the potential of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) for improving pronunciation skills in primary school.</p> Diego Paul Duma Quilambaqui Juan Pablo Contreras Parra Copyright (c) 2023 Diego Paul Duma Quilambaqui, Juan Pablo Contreras Parra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-09 2023-12-09 5 9 e240151 e240151 10.46652/runas.v5i9.151 The Use of Short Stories to improve English proficiency in Sixth Graders https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/159 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Existing research suggests that short stories are an engaging and immersive experience that actively stimulates foreign language students' imagination and promotes their interest in language acquisition; they can also foster empathy, critical thinking, and creativity, all of which are essential tools for language development. By bringing short stories into the language classroom, a variety of narratives, characters, and cross-cultural experiences might be met. This research examines English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students’ improvement and perceptions of the implementation of short stories into their English classes after a six-week period of exposure to it as a teaching-learning strategy. The findings of the investigation showed a slight difference in students’ language improvement after comparing the pre- and post-test results; however, students’ perceptions of the implementation of short stories could bring insights into the English classrooms to enhance students’ language skills, promoting passion for reading, and encouraging critical thinking.</p> Byron Teodoro Astudillo Tapia Juanita Argudo-Serrano Copyright (c) 2023 Byron Teodoro Astudillo Tapia, Juanita Argudo-Serrano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 9 e240159 e240159 10.46652/runas.v5i9.159 The Impact of ‘WEBTOON’ as a Digital Reading Tool for EFL High School Students https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/152 <p>After the pandemic, a palpable learning loss in the classrooms was left while more technological learners and teachers were born. It has led us to seek digital strategies to keep students engaged in the classrooms and one of these is the use of Webtoon. It has been widely gaining attention for its simple but fun interface in the generation Z, besides having different genres, themes, and panels with drawings that can engage users to keep reading in their leisure time. In the following qualitative study, the perspectives of high school students from UEPSMA (Unidad Educativa Particular Salesianas María Auxiliadora) in Cuenca were analyzed. Using three action research cycles with a qualitative method, they engaged in three pop quizzes and a final Google Forms survey at the end of the third. Results showed that students found Webtoon’s illustrations and vocabulary satisfying, and they continued reading because of the plot and the illustrations. Their open-ended questions also highlighted how content the majority were at using a digital reading tool in the classroom, boosting their English reading motivation.</p> Mónica Daniela Guartazaca Tacuri Copyright (c) 2023 Mónica Daniela Guartazaca Tacuri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-10 2023-12-10 5 9 e240152 e240152 10.46652/runas.v5i9.152 Assertive communication techniques: the impact on the academic performance of high school students https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/160 <p style="font-weight: 400;">This research is significant due to its comprehensive examination of the influence of assertive communication on the academic performance of high school students. It is an essential factor that participants in the educational process must consider. The main objective of this research is to determine the impact of assertive communication on the academic efforts of students enrolled in the Unified General Baccalaureate program of the "Mushullacta" Educational Unit. Consequently, a systematic and organized research process is carried out, employing the scientific procedure that encompasses information from written sources and field work. In terms of methodology, a mixed approach is employed, combining quantitative and qualitative variables. Consequently, data are obtained from different groups, including control and experimental groups. Consequently, the research falls within the descriptive-correlational scope, since the two variables, namely assertive communication and academic performance, are interrelated within the academic context of students in the virtual modality. The results obtained indicate that assertive communication has a significant impact on the interaction between educational participants. Alternative solutions for academic performance were developed.</p> William Franklin Chaglla Lasluisa Kleber Mauricio Núñez Bautista Copyright (c) 2023 William Franklin Chaglla Lasluisa, Kleber Mauricio Núñez Bautista https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 5 9 e240160 e240160 10.46652/runas.v5i9.160