Runas. Journal of Education and Culture <p><strong>RUNAS. Journal of Education and Culture</strong>, ISSN 2737-6230, is a refereed academic journal that publishes 2 issues per year (January-July and August-December). Founded in 2020, it seeks to publish articles related to education and culture around the world, in terms of reality verification, since these fields are interrelated as key elements of the development of peoples. We welcome contributions from researchers, academics, and young students with a critical, contextual vision that contributes to the dissemination of the reality of the fields described, mainly in peripheral countries, and their reflection on the alternatives/possibility of liberation.</p> <p>*<em><strong>"RUNAS</strong>"</em> is a word that comes from the Kichwa language of the indigenous peoples of Ecuador, used to refer to human beings.</p> CICSHAL-RELIGACION. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA - RELIGACIÓN en-US Runas. Journal of Education and Culture 2737-6230 Performance levels and attitudes towards mathematics <p>The present research seeks to address the existing problem of university students who manifest different attitudes towards mathematics and the effect this has on their level of academic performance. The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between students’ mathematical performance and their attitudes towards mathematics. Methodologically, a quantitative research design of correlational and cross-sectional approach was used; in addition, two instruments were applied: one to evaluate academic performance through a non-standardized test, and another to measure attitudes towards mathematics; to a sample of 339 students at the School of Administrative Sciences, Business Management, and Informatics at the State University of Bolivar.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>The results obtained indicated that the attitudinal factors of motivation, liking and anxiety are directly related to their level of academic performance.</p> Claudio José Hidalgo Vargas Jessica Katherine Gaona Alvarado Ana Lucia Hidalgo Vargas Richar Lutter Calderón Zambrano Esteban Xavier Pérez Villafuerte Copyright (c) 2023 Claudio José Hidalgo Vargas, Jessica Katherine Gaona Alvarado, Ana Lucia Hidalgo Vargas, Richar Lutter Calderón Zambrano, Esteban Xavier Pérez Villafuerte 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 4 8 e230114 e230114 10.46652/runas.v4i8.114 Technological didactic resources in eye-hand development in children from 3 to 4 years old <p>This study highlights the significance of utilizing ICT as a dynamic tool for teaching, specifically through didactic activities that improve learning in the classroom. The issue of deficient eye-hand coordination and motor development in 3 to 4-year-old children is addressed. The primary objective is to introduce technological educational resources to improve eye-hand skills. For the research, a mixed-method exploratory approach was used. Data was collected through observation, surveys, and interviews. This allowed for identification of the problem and demonstrated that integrating didactic resources enhances learning by making the classroom more dynamic and innovative. The study concludes that digital technologies are effective for communication between families and educational environments, making processes more visible in terms of meaning and value.</p> María Alejandra Macías Zambrano Johanna Isabel Zambrano Alcívar Copyright (c) 2023 María Alejandra Macías Zambrano, Johanna Isabel Zambrano Alcívar 2023-08-19 2023-08-19 4 8 e230117 e230117 10.46652/runas.v4i8.117 Affections due to the use of the voice, in teachers of the Educational Unit Ciudad de Cuenca <p>The objective of the study is to identify the factors that generate affections due to the use of the voice in teachers of the Ciudad de Cuenca Educational Unit and to demonstrate work absenteeism through their clinical history. A cross-sectional, qualitative, documentary, analytical and statistical retrospective type design is applied to 60 teachers; through surveys of the Vocal Disadvantage Index and the Phoniatrics Commission of the Spanish Otorhinolaryngology Society, modified and validated by expert judgment. Statistical analysis is performed with SPSS v.21.0 software. The tabulated information reflects the type of vocal disability; In the age groups, greater alteration is observed in the female gender, depending on the years of teaching activity, the greatest risk is evident in the range of 6 to 10 years, teachers exposed to temperature changes show an unfavorable trend, the intake of liquor and anxiety are important incidence factors. Work absenteeism generated by pathologies inherent to the respiratory and phonatory system in the period 2021–2022, is 46.25%, a figure that is not tolerable. The presence of protective factors is almost null, reflecting the need to propose preventive and corrective measures that control these alterations.</p> Manuel Campoverde-Andrade Tania Tamayo-Calle Copyright (c) 2023 Manuel Campoverde-Andrade, Tania Tamayo-Calle 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 4 8 e230120 e230120 10.46652/runas.v4i8.120 Educational quality and perceived service satisfaction of students of the technological institutes of Riobamba <p>The study aimed to examine the impact of student-perceived quality and perceived price on student satisfaction by applying the ServQual model to recognize student perception. The applied methodology had a quantitative approach; therefore, it is essential to collect accurate and reliable data that can be analyzed statistically. The study sample was made up of 200 students from the 4 technological institutes of the province of Chimborazo according to the cross-sectional study. To collect the information, a questionnaire carried out in Microsoft Forms was applied to the students of the 4 institutes belonging to the province of Chimborazo based on the SERVQUAL model, with the intervention of the dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsibility, security, empathy, and quality. from service. To obtain the results, the statistical method of factor analysis was used using SPSS software, from which the KMO and Bartlett tests were obtained to determine the feasibility of the model. Finally, it was concluded that, once the impact of quality perceived by students and perceived value on student satisfaction was examined, it resulted in a relationship of 72% according to the factor analysis carried out, which suggests that these two factors are highly influential in the students’ experience.</p> Silvia Valeria Castelo Quinde Laura Mercedes Quishpi Espinel María Ángela Gómez Jaramillo Evelin Adriana Campos Cabezas Copyright (c) 2023 Silvia Valeria Castelo Quinde, Laura Mercedes Quishpi Espinel, María Ángela Gómez Jaramillo, Evelin Adriana Campos Cabezas 2023-10-12 2023-10-12 4 8 e230129 e230129 10.46652/runas.v4i8.129 Socioeconomic impact of the Jóvenes Construyendo El Futuro program on university students in Mexico <p>This research arises from the existing problems in the distribution of state resources for public policies that economically support Mexican youth. The objective of the study is to perform a comparative analysis of the approved and paid budgets for the fiscal year 2021 of the programs; youth building the future and support for undergraduate medical interns in Mexico. The methodology used was a basic, field, and non-experimental research, longitudinal and descriptive in scope. In addition, the survey was used as a data collection technique, by means of non-probabilistic sampling, applied to 22 people from each program previously mentioned. The results obtained revealed that there is a great disparity between the two groups. The JCFs receive a fixed amount of monthly economic assistance, while most of the MIPs receive lower amounts on a biweekly basis.</p> Eber Jardiel Pérez Zúñiga Copyright (c) 2023 Eber Jardiel Pérez Zúñiga 2023-10-13 2023-10-13 4 8 e230128 e230128 10.46652/runas.v4i8.128 Logical Framework Methodology: a key tool for effective social project management <p>The agricultural yields in most crops are below the values that should be achieved under irrigation, which decreases water use efficiency and profitability of irrigation. In the Susudel parish, this has led to a decrease in agricultural production in the area, causing families to be forced to leave their communities in search of better livelihood opportunities. The objective of this research is to develop a social project with a logical framework approach that promotes the incorporation of an irrigation system in this parish of the Oña canton. This would allow supplying water to a large part of the sector and improving agricultural production conditions, increasing the productivity of local crops, and the quality of life of the community. The logical framework methodology and matrix stand out as valuable tools to simplify the process of conceptualization, design, execution, and evaluation of social projects. The results show that the parish faces challenges related to water scarcity and the lack of an irrigation system, but there is interest and willingness on the part of farmers to improve their agricultural and livestock production by 60% through the implementation of a community irrigation system. The implementation of an efficient irrigation system has multiple benefits such as optimizing the use of available water and providing farmers with a valuable tool for the development of their agro-productive activities.</p> Jhenny Ximena Jara Capa Yonimiller Castillo Ortega Juan Bautista Solís Muñoz Copyright (c) 2023 Jhenny Ximena Jara Capa, Yonimiller Castillo Ortega, Juan Bautista Solís Muñoz 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 4 8 e230137 e230137 10.46652/runas.v4i8.137 Femicide: a latent reality in Ecuador <p>This research addressed the phenomenon of femicide in Ecuador and at the level of Latin America and the Caribbean. Its contribution lies in the importance of preventing and eliminating this form of violence. The research methodology involved a bibliographic, documentary, descriptive and exploratory approach, collecting data from various sources, such as magazines, scientific research, literary publications, reference files and academic works. The fundamental objective was to analyze feminidio and demonstrate the statistics in order to establish strategies for its prevention and eradication in Ecuador. The results revealed the record of 2,078 female victims of feminicide between 2014 and August 2023, showing that a woman is murdered every 26 hours in 2022, leaving approximately 245 children orphaned that year. This research demonstrated a drastic increase in violence against women in recent years, whose attackers are usually spouses, ex-partners or close relatives; the crimes occurred more frequently when the victims were separated, reflecting a sexist mentality rooted in Ecuadorian society. It will also be observed that the economic crisis and the confinement due to the pandemic contributed to aggravating this problem.</p> Nancy Beatriz Caraguay Guaillas Juan Edmundo Álvarez Gavilanes Bertha Janeth Cárdenas Lata Copyright (c) 2023 Nancy Beatriz Caraguay Guaillas, Juan Edmundo Álvarez Gavilanes, Bertha Janeth Cárdenas Lata 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 4 8 e230130 e230130 10.46652/runas.v4i8.130 Tax education in the community: an exploratory study of organizational needs in the canton of La Maná <p>The problem of tax evasion is constantly witnessed in Ecuador, so the government through the Internal Revenue Service loses income from various types of taxes. The purpose of the research is to analyze the effect of tax education based on the needs and awareness of the taxpayer. For this, it was related to the effect caused by the sanctions on the compliance of declaring their taxes. The applied method was quantitative since a survey was applied to 191 taxpayers (MSMEs) through simple random sampling. The factors evaluated were knowledge of the taxpayer, penalties, level of education, awareness, and tax compliance. The results revealed that tax knowledge, sanctions and tax education have a significant positive effect on taxpayer awareness. Likewise, tax knowledge, tax sanctions, tax education and taxpayer awareness have a positive and significant effect towards taxpayer compliance (R2=91.9%). It was concluded that, efforts must be made by the Government and Control Organizations to educate the taxpayer to increase the State’s income and promote the economic development of the country.</p> Ketty del Rocío Hurtado García Mayra Elizabeth García Bravo Rosa Marjorie Torres Briones Rodrigo Arturo Reyes Armas Copyright (c) 2023 Ketty del Rocío Hurtado García, Mayra Elizabeth García Bravo, Rosa Marjorie Torres Briones, Rodrigo Arturo Reyes Armas 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 4 8 e230115 e230115 10.46652/runas.v4i8.115 Impact of digital educational technologies and academic performance in mathematics <p style="font-weight: 400;">This article addresses the problems that arise when using digital educational technologies and the effect they have on the mathematics students of the “Unidad Educativa Rodríguez Albornoz”, which is reflected in their academic performance. The objective of the research is to analyze the impact of the use of digital educational technologies, specifically with the use of the digital tool "Graphmatica", on the academic performance of students in mathematics. Methodologically, a quantitative research design of correlational and cross-sectional approach was used; in addition, two instruments were applied: the first to identify the value that a student gives to mathematics in relation to their future professional life through a Likert-type questionnaire and the second, to measure attitudes towards mathematics; all this in a sample of 45 students (20 males and 25 females) in the school year 2022- 2023. The results obtained show that there is no significant correlation between the use of digital technologies in the classroom and academic performance in the subject of mathematics, thus demonstrating a slight impact with the implementation of the Graphmatica tool.</p> Héctor Alberto Luzuriaga Jaramillo Diego Patricio Hidalgo Cajo Edwin Santiago Avilés Luna Richar Lutter Calderón Zambrano Juan Carlos Mata López Copyright (c) 2023 Héctor Alberto Luzuriaga Jaramillo, Diego Patricio Hidalgo Cajo, Edwin Santiago Avilés Luna, Richar Lutter Calderón Zambrano, Juan Carlos Mata López 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 4 8 e230118 e230118 10.46652/runas.v4i8.118 Intercultural Ecuadorian educational policy: a comparative study against the educational processes of Peru and El Salvador <p>Education is a key component for a nation’s development and progress, as it plays an important role in producing capable citizens who are dedicated to their social, cultural, and political surroundings. As such, the research aims to conduct a comparative analysis of the Ecuadorian intercultural education policy in relation to the educational practices in Peru and El Salvador. Through qualitative and comparative analyses, this study aims to examine how three Latin American countries have incorporated interculturality into their educational systems, considering historical, sociocultural, and political factors. We used bibliographic review as a data collection technique while working with public institutional documents, government products, Senescyt regulations (Ecuador), as well as analyzed bilateral agreements in the form of concordats, national constitutions, basic laws, and conciliar documents. It was concluded that the three countries share a common model for recognizing cultural diversity, promoting cultural identity, and training teachers in intercultural communication. However, they differ in aspects such as the integration of indigenous languages, social commitment, and specific approaches to coexistence and the construction of intercultural citizenship.</p> Jimy Darwin Reyes Sánchez Verónica Carolina Orozco Manobanda Israel Antonio Orozco Manobanda Copyright (c) 2023 Jimy Darwin Reyes Sánchez, Verónica Carolina Orozco Manobanda, Israel Antonio Orozco Manobanda 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 4 8 e230121 e230121 10.46652/runas.v4i8.121 Absence of workers in fulfillment of institutional objectives, health center 3 -Loja, Ecuador <p>The objective of this work is to determine the factors of absenteeism of the workers and their influence on the fulfillment of the Institutional objectives of the Health Center No. 3 of the City of Loja Ecuador. The applied methodology is of a correlational type since there is a degree of relationship between the research variables (Absenteeism Factors and Institutional Objectives) and explanatory by this research will respond to the causes of the events, focusing on the why and what. conditions occur, or the relationship between them. These factors were evaluated among 40 servers/workers of Health Center No. 3 in the city of Loja, Ecuador. It was concluded that absenteeism in the workers of the Health Center No. 3 of the city of Loja influences the fulfillment of the institutional objectives set out in the Local Health Operational Program for the year 2022, the main causes being absence due to illness, vacations, and permissions for personal matters.</p> Leonardo Augusto Paredes Quezada Juan Carlos Garate Aguirre Copyright (c) 2023 Leonardo Augusto Paredes Quezada, Juan Carlos Garate Aguirre 2023-10-12 2023-10-12 4 8 e230127 e230127 10.46652/runas.v4i8.127 The rural community-based tourism in San José de Bachillero: an innovative management model <p style="font-weight: 400;">Community-based rural tourism has emerged as a powerful tool for promoting sustainable development in rural areas around the world. This article presents an innovative model of community-based rural tourism management in San José de Bachillero, a charming parish located in the Manabí region of Ecuador, with the objective of improving the quality of life of the inhabitants and promoting sustainable tourism in the area. In the research, interviews and surveys were applied to measure the study variables to know the natural and cultural resources of the parish as well as the predisposition of the inhabitants to participate. From the analysis of the main results obtained, it became evident that the parish has an active community and an inventory of natural resources that need to be maximized, since by combining the conservation of natural and cultural resources with the active participation of the inhabitants, an economic, social, and environmental approach is generated at the local level. In conclusion, through the presentation of an innovative and sustainable management model that promotes the well-being of the inhabitants, we seek to contribute to the development of rural community-based tourism in the parish.</p> Gema Vanessa Marcillo Coaboy Edwin Joselito Vásquez Erazo Glenda Maricela Ramón Poma Copyright (c) 2023 Gema Vanessa Marcillo Coaboy, Edwin Joselito Vásquez Erazo, Glenda Maricela Ramón Poma 2023-10-20 2023-10-20 4 8 e230136 e230136 10.46652/runas.v4i8.136 Psychosocial risks in the health personnel of the Auxilio Praxxel clinic in Cuenca <p style="font-weight: 400;">Psychosocial factors affect the physical and mental health of workers, so the presence of these has a negative impact on adequate work performance. This research analyzed the presence of psychosocial risks in workers of a private clinic in the city of Cuenca. The general objective was to characterize psychosocial risks in the health personnel of the Auxilio Praxxel clinic in the city of Cuenca. The study was cross-sectional, with a quantitative approach, not experimental design. A sociodemographic survey and a questionnaire of risk factors: SUSESO-ISTAS-21 were carried out on 25 workers. The data were processed in SPSS version 22.0, using descriptive frequencies, percentages, and Pearson correlation coefficient. The working conditions, relationship with co-workers, information received on the work they do, relationship with superiors, material conditions and the equipment available to perform the work were evaluated well and regularly. The results obtained indicated prevalence of high-risk level in the 5 dimensions studied.</p> Nycole Julissa Lucero Vasquez Diego Paúl Andrade Campoverde Copyright (c) 2023 Nycole Julissa Lucero Vasquez, Diego Paúl Andrade Campoverde 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 4 8 e230139 e230139 10.46652/runas.v4i8.139 Psychosocial risk factors and work performance in Austroforja employees in Cuenca–Ecuador <p style="font-weight: 400;">The research is based on psychosocial factors related to work performance in the company Austroforja in Cuenca-Ecuador. It is proposed to analyze them and establish a relationship with work performance through applied research. The study is quantitative and decant of the theoretical construct where job motivation, skills and knowledge are associated with work performance. 31 people were investigated in the company. The results reveal that there is a negative correlation between work motivation -0.413*, skills, and knowledge -0.572** being statistically significant tests at a level lower than p- value of 0.05 and p-value of 0,01, which implies that the work environment variable did not pass the statistical test. It is concluded that, programs to improve work performance in employees of this organization should be effectively oriented to address work motivation, skills, and knowledge to decrease psychosocial factors in the specific context of study.</p> Bibiana Alexandra Morales Ordoñez José Luis Solano Peláez Copyright (c) 2023 Bibiana Alexandra Morales Ordoñez, José Luis Solano Peláez 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 4 8 e230145 e230145 10.46652/runas.v4i8.145 Methodologies, Strategies and Tools for Active, Meaningful and Differentiated Learning <p>For learning to be truly relevant, motivating, and long-lasting, it is necessary to go beyond memorization and repetition. For this, it is required to apply active, significant and differentiated methodologies, strategies, and teaching tools. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to explain four methodological proposals (Backward Design, Fink’s Taxonomy, Differentiated Instruction, and Family of Social Models) that will allow to achieve this type of desired learning, and analyze how they can be applied in a real classroom. The following paper analyzes how to apply these methodological proposals in a 7<sup>th</sup> grade class of Social Sciences and suggests specific tools to be used and explains in depth how to carry them out. This paper allows us to see the importance of a) first stating the objectives and evaluation, to then design the activities to be used (Backward Design), b) the importance of not only reaching knowledge, but also other dimensions like application, integration, human dimension, importance/values, and learning how to learn in our teaching process (Fink’s Taxonomy), c) the benefits of adapting the teaching-learning process to the needs, skills, and interests of students (Differentiated Instruction), and d) the importance of learning as a social and cooperative process, not an individual one (Family of Social Models).</p> Ligia Fernanda Espinosa Cevallos Carina Moreno González Copyright (c) 2023 Ligia Fernanda Espinosa Cevallos, Carina Moreno González 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 4 8 e230116 e230116 10.46652/runas.v4i8.116 Risk factors involved in the consumption of psychotropic and psychoactive substances <p>The general objective of this research is to examine the risk factors that influence drug use in male patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Guayaquil. The use of drugs causes a state of dependency manifesting physiological, behavioral and cognitive patterns, harming individuals. The rate of consumption of psychoactive and psychotropic substances occurs for various reasons, divided into internal and external factors. People who choose to undergo a detoxification program go through a process known as withdrawal syndrome, when they stop using drugs, showing physical and/or mental symptoms. It was identified that there is a level of basic education among consumers, most individuals are related to family and friends who consume, the start of consumption began between 14-20 years of age and prior to consumption, individuals were diagnosed with some underlying pathology like depression.</p> Linner Paola Urrutia Sagnay Daniela Lorena Matovelle Bustos Copyright (c) 2023 Linner Paola Urrutia Sagnay, Daniela Lorena Matovelle Bustos 2023-08-21 2023-08-21 4 8 e230119 e230119 10.46652/runas.v4i8.119 Evaluation of the impact of tax reforms on tax incentives to promote economic activities of the commercial sector in the province of Tungurahua <p>This research focuses on the problems generated by tax reforms in fiscal incentives in Ecuador and their impact on the accounting results of small businesses in the commercial sector of the province of Tungurahua. The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the effects of tax reforms on tax incentives aimed at promoting economic activities in the commercial sector of the province. A cross-sectional quantitative approach methodology was used, as well as a descriptive correlational scope; in addition, a questionnaire survey was applied to a sample of 45 small companies belonging to the commercial sector of Tungurahua. The results obtained indicate that there is a relationship between the tax incentives and the accounting results of these companies, and that the companies that took advantage of the tax incentives presented greater benefits at the end of their accounting periods.</p> Álvaro Hernán Vayas López Guido Hernán Tobar Vasco Bertha Jeaneth Sánchez Herrera Carlos Alberto Barreno Córdova Hermel David Ortiz Roman Copyright (c) 2023 Álvaro Hernán Vayas López, Guido Hernán Tobar Vasco, Bertha Jeaneth Sánchez Herrera, Carlos Alberto Barreno Córdova, Hermel David Ortiz Roman 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 4 8 e230122 e230122 10.46652/runas.v4i8.122 The community and its influence on the quality of life of elderly adults in the canton SigSig Ludo parish <p>The quality of life in the elderly is based on several factors such as: the physical and social environment, particularly the home, the neighborhood, and the community, as well as the socioeconomic level. The objective of the study was to determine the impact that the community has on the quality of life of the elderly, in the case of Ludo canton Sigsig province of Azuay, the basis of this investigation had a quantitative approach with a descriptive scope, the method used was deductive that allowed to know the facts and situations of the community that influence the quality of life of the elderly, the technique used for data collection was the survey, we worked with the population comprised of 40 Older Adults as a study unit. The results obtained conclude that the majority live alone, depend on their own care, very few live or receive support from their family and the community, they are very old people, which significantly affects their quality of life and hinders their relationships social.</p> Daisy Alexandra Maza Poma Jenny Irlanda Tapia Segarra Nancy Yolanda Fernández Aucapiña Copyright (c) 2023 Daisy Alexandra Maza Poma, Jenny Irlanda Tapia Segarra, Nancy Yolanda Fernández Aucapiña 2023-10-12 2023-10-12 4 8 e230131 e230131 10.46652/runas.v4i8.131 Development of management skills in women leaders at the Universidad Católica de Cuenca <p>The study focuses on identifying the predominant managerial skills of women in managerial positions at the Catholic University of Cuenca and how to strengthen them to promote female leadership and gender equity in the workplace. Adopting a positivist approach and quantitative methodology, exploratory and descriptive research was conducted with a cross-sectional and simple random probability sampling, the study covers 135 women in management positions, of which a sample of 105 women was surveyed. The results highlight the correlation between more training and the correction of gender inequalities, highlighting the influence of female leadership in the development of managerial skills. It is evident that mentoring programs and institutional support strengthen these skills and contribute to gender equity in the university. Strengthening management skills such as teamwork, effective communication, strategic decisions, decision-making, and conflict resolution is fundamental for women to overcome barriers and demonstrate their worth as competent leaders. Empowering women leaders benefits both organizations, enriching decision-making and diversity of perspectives and approaches, and society in general, fostering greater performance and competitiveness in the business environment. This research highlights the need to promote the development of management skills in women leaders at the Catholic University of Cuenca and in other work environments through specific leadership development programs for women.</p> Ruth Noemí Fajardo Pauta Diego Marcelo Cordero González Juan Bautista Solís Muñoz Copyright (c) 2023 Ruth Noemí Fajardo Pauta, Diego Marcelo Cordero González, Juan Bautista Solís Muñoz 2023-10-24 2023-10-24 4 8 e230138 e230138 10.46652/runas.v4i8.138 Characterization of the prevention of volcanic risk in an educational institution in the canton of Ambato–Ecuador <p>The investigation aims to describe the categories of natural risk prevention, through applied research, to raise the response capacities of the actors of an educational community in the Ambato canton–Ecuador. The study is qualitative and considers the theoretical construct where natural hazards, vulnerability, perception, and management of disaster risks are associated with volcanic risk. An interview has been carried out with all those involved. The content validation of the interview was done through the trial-and-error method directly with the study subjects, sixteen people from an educational community of the Pilahuín parish. As revealing results, risks were found due to the proximity to the Tungurahua volcano, earthquakes, volcanic ash, and landslides. A medium vulnerability regarding the environment and structural design of buildings. Health risks to the respiratory system from exposure to volcanic ash. The Risk Management Plan lacks limited training. The preventive culture is not promoted effectively. The building does not have materials to prevent volcanic ash from entering the classrooms and there is limited personal protective equipment. It is concluded as a preventive priority to strengthen knowledge and awareness of volcanic risk.</p> Eduardo David Suárez Crespín Gerardo Eugenio Campoverde Jiménez Copyright (c) 2023 Eduardo David Suárez Crespín, Gerardo Eugenio Campoverde Jiménez 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 4 8 e230140 e230140 10.46652/runas.v4i8.140 Revisiting the rights of children and adolescents <p>The promotion and protection of the rights of boys and girls has become a fundamental pillar within educational contexts, in order to guarantee the comprehensive development of students, focusing the responsibility of schools, in terms of the construction of learning spaces directed towards the recognition of the other as a subject with full rights, highlighting the fundamental role of teachers in the exercise of promotion and protection, from the conceptual and practical appropriation by children of their rights to mitigate school vulnerability , hence the purpose of this research article whose main objective is to carry out training on the code of childhood and adolescence at the Joaquín Gallegos Educational Unit, in order to improve and facilitate access to information for students, teachers and the entire educational community. To achieve this objective, an analysis will be carried out to better understand the needs of the students based on their knowledge of their duties, rights, and obligations. Finally, the socialization of the code of childhood and adolescence will be implemented. This Code provides for the comprehensive protection that the State, society and the family must guarantee to all children and adolescents living in Ecuador, to achieve their integral development and the full enjoyment of their rights, in a framework of freedom, dignity and equity. Ultimately, this research article seeks to offer an efficient and effective solution to provide, improve and expand students’ knowledge and thus be able to prevent human rights abuses, combat discrimination, promote equality and encourage the participation of people in decision-making processes.</p> Natalia Iveth Pachacama Banda Thalía Selina Chica Méndez Katherine Gabriela Reyes Pinto Luis Adrián Cedeño Silvestre Copyright (c) 2023 Natalia Iveth Pachacama Banda, Thalía Selina Chica Méndez, Katherine Gabriela Reyes Pinto, Luis Adrián Cedeño Silvestre 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 4 8 e230146 e230146 10.46652/runas.v4i8.146