Runas. Journal of Education and Culture <p><strong>RUNAS. Journal of Education and Culture</strong>, ISSN 2737-6230, is a refereed academic journal that publishes 2 issues per year (January-July and August-December). Founded in 2020, it seeks to publish articles related to education and culture around the world, in terms of reality verification, since these fields are interrelated as key elements of the development of peoples. We welcome contributions from researchers, academics, and young students with a critical, contextual vision that contributes to the dissemination of the reality of the fields described, mainly in peripheral countries, and their reflection on the alternatives/possibility of liberation.</p> <p>*<em><strong>"RUNAS</strong>"</em> is a word that comes from the Kichwa language of the indigenous peoples of Ecuador, used to refer to human beings.</p> CICSHAL-RELIGACION. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA - RELIGACIÓN en-US Runas. Journal of Education and Culture 2737-6230 The approval processes for workplace harassment and their impact on legal certainty <p>Labor harassment or mobbing causes several risks within the workplace, such as the case of generating a hostile environment in interpersonal relationships between workers and employers. Its consequences are irreversible, due to the lack of attention in the administration of justice when dealing with this figure. Therefore, the objective of the research work will focus on: If there is an ineffective process when talking about the approval and its impact on the legal security of the victim in the face of labor harassment? By making known concepts that are related to the subject of the approval process, how it acts within the figure of labor harassment and how the due process must solve the legal security of the victim within the judicial process. This qualitative research work uses three methods: inductive-deductive, analytical-synthetic and bibliographical-documentary, these three methods allow a flexible and rigorous approach, ensuring an adequate validation of the problem addressed and providing a complete and deep vision of the topic. As a result, it became evident that the process of approval of labor harassment has become only an administrative act, which undermines the legal security of the victim. Finally, it was determined that there is an impact on the legal security of the victim, since when it is proved that there was harassment, she is dismissed from her workplace, while the harasser, the person who carried out the harmful action, continues in his job, bringing with it that these acts have become repetitive.</p> Ricardo Arturo Nieto Nieves Luis Alberto López Pinos Mónica Cecibel Gallegos Avendaño Copyright (c) 2023 Ricardo Arturo Nieto Nieves, Luis Alberto López Pinos, Mónica Cecibel Gallegos Avendaño 2023-05-23 2023-05-23 4 7 e230111 e230111 10.46652/runas.v4i7.111 Digital Marketing as a strategic toll for business positioning <p>he interactive and digital dynamics of companies was accentuated by the pandemic, making visible the lack of digital skills on the part of workers, little or no training in digital programs and inadequate commercial management through digital marketing, demanding the need to develop , transform and use new methods, instruments and tools that strengthen business positioning through the design of digital marketing strategies for MSMEs affiliated with the Cafam family compensation fund located in Bogotá, in order to improve the financial structure and positioning of such entities at the local and national level. Being a mixed character investigation, a sequential explanatory design, framed in 3 phases or stages of development, which identify characteristics of positive and negative impacts in social, commercial, administrative and environmental digital environments, through its axes of analysis, namely: population, society, space and resource, which allows triangulating qualitative and quantitative information in different business contexts, obtaining the profiling of digital marketing strategies for the MSMEs under study where business management associated with variables such as economy, local development is involved. , regional development and consumer profile, directing the positioning of products and services in social networks, commercial dissemination in advertising campaigns, satisfaction surveys, promotions, focus on products and services and customer loyalty, as well as the approach to digital content by the staff involved in each of the work areas and organizational environment.</p> Claudia Alicia Hernández Mesa Nubia Stella Carreño Amaya Copyright (c) 2023 Claudia Alicia Hernández Mesa, Nubia Stella Carreño Amaya 2023-05-23 2023-05-23 4 7 e230088 e230088 10.46652/runas.v4i7.88 The classification of artisan branches in Ecuador and the prejudice to the labor law of artisans <p style="font-weight: 400;">The research project is about the analysis of the labor limitation of artisans qualified by the National Board for the Defense of the Craftsman, on the subdivisions of artisan activities, through a review of the Regulation of Qualifications and Branches of Work and the Law for the Defense of the Craftsman , regulations that violate the right to work, limiting them to fully develop their work, knowing that the craft activity creates jobs, increases local, national and international income, ensuring the economic and commercial viability of artisans and society. However, with the reforms it generates labor limitations and a retroactivity of the benefits that have been acquired. The methodology used was qualitative to collect and analyze concepts, laws, opinions, etc. on qualified artisans, it has also been possible to demonstrate that there is a labor violation of qualified artisans by the reforms to the Regulation of Qualifications and Branches of Work.</p> Ibet Castro Reino Fausto Barrera Bravo Copyright (c) 2023 Ibet Castro Reino, Fausto Barrera Bravo 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 4 7 e23096 e23096 10.46652/runas.v4i7.96 Waste in emerging markets: conspicuous consumption and sustainable brands <p>Conspicuous consumption is considered as the purchase of products in emerging franchises to obtain social status, that is, it is often a generator of social inequality and an impediment to sustainable development. For this reason, the study aims to examine the interpretive components of conspicuous consumption in emerging markets through the study of a national franchise whose consumption promotes a social status at the country level. Through the development of a survey and subsequent exploratory factorial statistical analysis. As a result, through the matrix of rotated components, it revealed six main components: Family allocentrism, Patriotism, Ethnocentrism-affective reaction, Ethnocentrism-cognitive bias, Ethnocentrism-behavioral preference, Conspicuous Consumption-Materialistic hedonism, and sustainable brands in a range of 0.6 to 0. ,9. It is important to consider family care, recognition in Ecuadorian food, lack of innovation, Bogati ice cream is not a rival to other ice cream parlors in Ecuador, experience, and few promotions.</p> Elizabeth Veronica Cunin Quispe Ana Carolina Tapia Pilamonta Elias David Caisa Yucailla Copyright (c) 2023 Elizabeth Veronica Cunin Quispe, Ana Carolina Tapia Pilamonta, Elias David Caisa Yucailla 2023-02-27 2023-02-27 4 7 e23092 e23092 10.46652/runas.v4i7.92 The Sports Environment: Perceptions According to Gender, Age and Sport <p>The environment that surrounds the athlete is immersed in different predominant elements that positively or negatively influence the athlete. The main objective of this study is to determine the perception of the sports environment and the impact on the training processes of each sport, through the formulation of surveys applied in different sports training schools: Boa Panqui and Los Pumas Sports Club of the El Pangui canton, in the disciplines of basketball and soccer. The study has a quantitative approach of a descriptive non-experimental cross-sectional type. The sample of this study was a total of 128 agents involved in children’s sports belonging to three groups: athletes, parents and coaches. Among which 44 athletes are between 11 and 12 years old, 23 athletes between 13 and 14 years old, 27 adults between 20 and 30 years old and 34 people between 31 and 50 years old; 80 respondents are oriented to the discipline of soccer and 48 to the discipline of basketball. Finally, 82 subjects are male and 46 females. According to the results found, it is concluded that there is no good perception of the sports environment (Good arbitration, sportsmanship, educational coaches and respectful parents), in relation to age, gender and sport.</p> José Enrique Valladarez Herrera Darwin Gabriel García-Herrera Carlos Marcelo Ávila-Mediavilla Copyright (c) 2023 José Enrique Valladarez Herrera, Darwin Gabriel García-Herrera, Carlos Marcelo Ávila-Mediavilla 2023-04-16 2023-04-16 4 7 e230107 e230107 10.46652/runas.v4i7.107 Forensic audit, as a control tool to prevent financial fraud in family businesses in the banana sector of the Province of El Oro, Ecuador <p>Family businesses in the banana sector are being affected by various types of fraud that put their productivity, stability, and economic growth at risk. This research focuses on determining the importance of forensic auditing as a control tool to prevent fraud. Using surveys through digital platforms, it was possible to show results for later tabulation according to what was surveyed to 350 banana-producing companies. The results indicate that family businesses in the banana sector in the province of El Oro, Ecuador have a greater risk of being involved in any type of financial fraud because they do not have anti-fraud programs, which makes them vulnerable to any fraudulent situation causing economic damages; being so that the embezzlement is the one that has obtained the greatest relevance given that on many occasions the legacy left by the patriarch has been tarnished by the breach of trust by those who own shares, this may be a member of the family or part of the shareholding group, as has also been the case where those involved in the fraud are not part of the actions because they were assigned to supervise without imagining that they would commit financial crimes.</p> Lisseth Del Carmen Nuñez Sanchez José Alberto Vásquez Flores Luis Octavio Señalin Morales Copyright (c) 2023 Lisseth Del Carmen Nuñez Sanchez, José Alberto Vásquez Flores, Luis Octavio Señalin Morales 2023-05-20 2023-05-20 4 7 e230110 e230110 10.46652/runas.v4i7.110 Reduction of school violence: influence of university environmental factors <p>Ecuador, like other countries, is affected by the problem of violence, this problem does not only affect the educational units and the students who practice or experience it, but also extends to society. Some research results indicate that students who experience or witness violence at school are more likely to perpetuate violent behavior. Therefore, the objective of the research is to identify the causes and factors of school violence (Bullying). For this, a model proposed by Everett &amp; Price, was applied. The survey was carried out by 70 students of the psychology career at the Central University of Ecuador. A quantitative method was obtained since the data obtained through the application of the form was collected and analyzed. Finally, to carry out the statistic, exploratory factor analysis was carried out because it will allow us to explore the underlying dimensions, constructs, or latent variables of the variables used, in other words, those observed and measured by the researcher more precisely. Finally, it was concluded that violence in schools cannot be ignored. While many students may feel safer on campus, many are negatively affected by violence to the point that some campuses are not safe places conducive to learning, but rather a place that perpetuates anger and fear.</p> Diana Susana Villagómez Contreras Nacira Virginia Landeta Maldonado Jaime Oswaldo Zapata Palma Copyright (c) 2023 Diana Susana Villagómez Contreras, Nacira Virginia Landeta Maldonado, Jaime Oswaldo Zapata Palma 2023-02-02 2023-02-02 4 7 e23090 e23090 10.46652/runas.v4i7.90 University Social Responsibility in Higher Education Institutions in Machala Canton–Ecuador within the framework of the 2030 Agenda <p>States concerned about problems such as poverty, social inequality, education, established a set of agreements in the 2030 Agenda containing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), among these is SDG 4: quality education. Now, achieving sustainability of quality in education is essential, for this it is important the participation of higher education institutions and the link with the environment; therefore, university social responsibility contributes to the participation of the different actors of the education sector authorities, administrative, workers, teachers and researchers and students in the generation of necessary changes. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the actions of university social responsibility developed by higher education institutions in Machala Canton, Ecuador, within the framework of the 2030 Agenda. The methodology used is based on the quantitative approach, descriptive, cross-sectional, and the survey technique was applied through a digital questionnaire of 16 closed polycotomical questions formulated according to the Likert scale. The main results of the research were that Machala’s HEIs are characterized by being aligned to the fulfillment of the SDGs, so they have developed USR strategies to strengthen the link with the environment. As a conclusion, there is an interest on the part of HEIs, as well as the commitment of the Ecuadorian State to strengthen the quality of higher education in compliance with SDG 4 of the 2030 Agenda.</p> Claudio Andrés Chicomin Torres Virgilio Eduardo Salcedo-Muñoz Vicente Arias Montero Jonathan Neptali Herrera Peña Copyright (c) 2023 Claudio Andrés Chicomin Torres, Virgilio Eduardo Salcedo-Muñoz, Vicente Arias Montero, Jonathan Neptali Herrera Peña 2023-04-12 2023-04-12 4 7 e23097 e23097 10.46652/runas.v4i7.97 Soft skills in the management of teaching and administrative practice in Higher Education: hybrid modality <p style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this research is to correlate the soft skills of students with the management of teaching practice in educational management applied to a higher educational institution. Soft skills are considered to enhance the student's abilities and improve the quality of educational management. The research is quantitative, cross-sectional, non-probabilistic and intentional, correlational. It starts from a construct where the independent variable X1 is soft skills and the dependent variable is the management of teaching practice. The measurement instrument was validated by expert consensus, the internal consistency of the questionnaire was made with the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient for the general scale is 0.777. The correlational results show that the soft skills variable is positively and highly correlated with the management of the teaching practice (0.551**) and is statistically significantly less than the p-value of 0.05. It is concluded that educational management must consider in its plans, programs and projects the association between soft skills and the management of teaching practice in order to have better and greater results in the quality assurance of higher education.</p> Viviana Fabiola Pinos Medrano Juan Bautista Solis Muñoz Jessica Lucía Salamea Sánchez Copyright (c) 2023 Viviana Fabiola Pinos Medrano, Juan Bautista Solis Muñoz, Jessica Lucía Salamea Sánchez 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 4 7 e230105 e230105 10.46652/runas.v4i7.105 Recreation and sport: importance and benefits of spaces and sports venues <p style="font-weight: 400;">The importance and benefits of sports spaces and venues have an intensely significant impact on society since having them contributes to a better quality of life, health care, good living, camaraderie, interrelation, and a sense of belonging. For this reason, the objective of this study is to analyze the importance and benefits of sports spaces, and scenarios, and establish the perception that high school students have of the "Simón Bolívar" Educational Unit of the San Carlos Parroquia del Cantón Naranjal in the province of Guayas; and to elaborate a proposal for the improvement of the sports spaces and scenarios of this institution, all this to stimulate the sports practice. The methodology presents a descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional cohort design using data obtained in a single time, with a quantitative methodological approach. The results obtained from the survey applied to 108 students of the educational institution evidence the need for improvement, adaptation and maintenance of spaces and resources that allow the correct development of physical activity and sports. Finally, conclusions are formulated aimed at encouraging the development of new lines of work and research.</p> Jorge Estuardo Novillo Muñoz Santiago Alejandro Jarrín Navas Irina Magaly Alcívar Pinargote Copyright (c) 2023 Jorge Estuardo Novillo Muñoz, Santiago Alejandro Jarrín Navas, Irina Magaly Alcívar Pinargote 2023-04-17 2023-04-17 4 7 e230108 e230108 10.46652/runas.v4i7.108 Influencers in social networks: consumer perceptions about brand equity in the textile sector <p>Corporate textile brands have been affected by the drop-in consumption caused by unemployment associated with changes in purchasing and consumption habits. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact generated by the influencer’s strategy according to the perception of the consumer about the textile corporate brand in the city of Santo Domingo, Ecuador. The methodological design used was quantitative because the perception of the consumer regarding the topic raised was measured. The sample consisted of 360 consumers, who provide adequate information to carry out the investigation. A main result showed that there is a certain degree of incidence on the variables of influencers in social networks and their influence on the creation of content in relation to textile brands. Finally, it was concluded that the hiring of influencers as a strategy to increase sales in the textile corporate brand has a significant impact on consumer perception, since, if this strategy is correctly implemented, it can improve the brand image, increase awareness of the product.</p> Marco Antonio Lara Salinas Copyright (c) 2023 Marco Antonio Lara Salinas 2023-05-24 2023-05-24 4 7 e230112 e230112 10.46652/runas.v4i7.112 Effectiveness of presentation, practice and production method on the development of speaking fluency <p>This study was carried out due to the importance that speaking fluency has in communication management. In Santa Marianita de Jesus High School, students from the seventh year have successfully developed language skills like listening, reading, and writing. However, throughout an observation, it was found out that learners struggled with speaking fluency. The necessity of this study laid on the fact that the development of speaking fluency is crucial for an effective communication. The lack of effective communication was noticed since pupils could not share their thoughts, ideas, and feeling using English as the mean of communication. The general objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of presentation, practice, and production method in the development of speaking fluency among students. This study was carried out through a mixed approach, descriptive, exploratory methodology, and quasi-experimental design. The theoretical support was from books, papers, scientific magazines, and articles. To collect data, some instruments were used such as a pre-test, post-test, and an observation card to determine how effective PPP was to boost fluency during the intervention. Finally, results showed that it has statistically significant evidence at a=0.005 in speed, prosody, and coherence. This indicates that the PPP method contributes to speaking fluency, especially in prosody. This method PPP that belongs to the communicative approach allowed students to communicate in the target language effectively.</p> Rebeca Jeannette Pazmiño Vargas Vanessa del Pilar Sisalema Sánchez Tamara Lissette Cabrera Mejía Copyright (c) 2023 Rebeca Jeannette Pazmiño Vargas, Vanessa del Pilara Sisalema Sánchez, Tamara Lissette Cabrera Mejía 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 4 7 e23091 e23091 10.46652/runas.v4i7.91 Proposal for a graphic innovation model aimed at digital transformation <p style="font-weight: 400;">This study seeks to establish a graphic model of digital transformation, focused on the tourism industry, this being one of the first sectors in which their business processes were digitized around the world, so companies change frequently and are forced to adapt. around the transformation. The objective of the study was to create a graphic innovation proposal aimed at the digital transformation of the tourism industry in the province of Tungurahua. The methodological approach of this research follows the following guidelines: descriptive research and field modality, in order to collect more reliable data, allowing the generation of new knowledge by applying the scientific method; quantitative approach, with the relationship between the research variables, through the design and application of the survey technique for the systematic search for information through questions to those investigated about the data to be obtained. The results revealed that 15% of the companies studied are in the initial stage according to the digital innovation model. Similarly, 81% are in a stage of maturation.</p> Michelle Estefania Chuncha Martinez Kevin Bryan López Pilachanga Marcelo Javier Mancheno Saá Copyright (c) 2023 Michelle Estefania Chuncha Martinez, Kevin Bryan López Pilachanga, Marcelo Javier Mancheno Saá 2023-02-24 2023-02-24 4 7 e23089 e23089 10.46652/runas.v4i7.89 Analysis of the rights of transgender people in CRS Turi <p style="font-weight: 400;">The research project on the analysis of the violation of the rights of trans people within the CRS of Turi, carrying out a review of the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador, in relation to Resolution No. 14- 2021 in accordance with Resolution No. SNAI-SNAI-2021-0016-R, regulations that violate human rights, such as health, education. The country's prison system is not capable of separating transgender and transsexual persons, considering only sex, thus violating the right to sexual identity, indicated in the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and other international treaties. Within the present research, the methodology applied was qualitative, used to collect data, laws, basic concepts, among others.Managing to show that the regulations are lacking in the country on trans people, so modifications should be made to these resolutions and therefore to the Constitution.</p> Jennifer Estefanía Cárdenas Aucapiña Fernando Ochoa Rodriguez Copyright (c) 2023 Jennifer Estefanía Cárdenas Aucapiña, Fernando Ochoa Rodriguez 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 4 7 e23098 e23098 10.46652/runas.v4i7.98 Competitiveness of family microenterprises. Pre and post COVID 19 analyses in Azogues, Ecuador <p>The study of microenterprises is important because in the Ecuadorian context they represent more than 50% of the gross domestic product, that is why this research aims to analyze the competitiveness of family microenterprises in the Azogues canton in two time periods; pre and post pandemic COVID-19, which had a descriptive, longitudinal and correlational scope. On the other hand, the pre-pandemic information was taken from research conducted by the author of this study in 2020, while for the post-pandemic information a questionnaire designed by the author was used as an instrument, which was validated by Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient, presenting a result of 0.751 with a total of 15 items, demonstrating the reliability of the instrument. Among the main pre-pandemic results, it was found that competitiveness in that period of time was related to variables such as production and operation, quality assurance and marketing, while in the post-pandemic analysis it was found that competitiveness in that period of time was related to variables such as production and operation, quality assurance and marketing; While in the post-pandemic analysis, the competitiveness of family microenterprises in the Azogues canton is related to variables such as quality assurance, production and operation, human resources and environmental management, being the variables of quality assurance and production and operation constant in the two time periods, for this analysis the Sperman correlation was used and it is statistically significant since its p-value was less than 0. 05.</p> Esteban Gabriel Morocho Bustos Juan Bautista Solis Muñoz Jorge Lugo García Copyright (c) 2023 Esteban Gabriel Morocho Bustos, Juan Bautista Solis Muñoz, Jorge Lugo García 2023-04-19 2023-04-19 4 7 e230106 e230106 10.46652/runas.v4i7.106 Technical execution in women's soccer according to age and level of sports experience <p style="font-weight: 400;">The research refers to the Technical Execution in women's soccer according to age and level of sports experience, it was carried out in the city of Azogues, in the Javier Loyola parish at the National University of Education UNAE, considering that the preparation of the technical execution it is important to discover the skills of athletes in soccer and that their performance on the field of play is optimal; Its objective is to determine the technical execution in women's soccer according to age and level of sports experience; a non-experimental design was used, with a quantitative approach, and a survey and an observation sheet were applied as an information collection instrument, evidencing in the part of the analysis of the results of the information collection instruments that the athletes like to carry out their training in a group way because through them it generates motivational environments, just as according to the experience the athletes in the training demonstrated to execute the techniques in a normal balance, that is why it is required to show enthusiasm in the training to that the control and mastery of the ball on the field of play is correctly potentiated.</p> Francisco Javier Larriva González Santiago Alejandro Jarrin Navas Natalia María Rodríguez Zárate Copyright (c) 2023 Francisco Javier Larriva González, Santiago Alejandro Jarrin Navas, Natalia María Rodríguez Zárate 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 4 7 e230109 e230109 10.46652/runas.v4i7.109 Shadowing technique to teach Listening to A1 level EFL students <p>Shadowing is a listening technique that develops the bottom-up process (the understanding of the smallest units of the audio input such as individual sounds) of the listening skill by training the learners’ ears to recognize phonemes, words, and thus phrases. It is said this is a useful technique for the development of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ listening skills. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of the shadowing technique on the listening skill of A1-level EFL learners from Luisa de Jesús Cordero High School. An explanatory sequential mixed method design will be carried out by using the listening part of the A2 Key for Schools from Cambridge Language Assessment exam and a close-ended survey to assess the impact of shadowing on the students’ listening performance and their perception of shadowing. For this purpose, experimental and control groups were carried out. The study outcomes provide information about how shadowing, as a technique to teach listening, has influenced English learners’ listening skill and their perspectives in an Ecuadorian high school setting.</p> Mayra Nataly Campoverde Villavicencio Juanita Catalina Argudo Serrano Copyright (c) 2023 Mayra Nataly Campoverde Villavicencio, Juanita Catalina Argudo Serrano 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 4 7 e230103 e230103 10.46652/runas.v4i7.103 Forced to study a second language online. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on EFL students due to the abrupt change to online learning <p style="font-weight: 400;">The whole world witnessed changes triggered by the sudden COVID-19 pandemic, which caused serious disruptions in economic, social, and cultural dynamics everywhere. Higher education has also undeniably suffered from the challenges, and many college students worldwide have turned away from formal education and lost touch. One of the most significant changes has been in how the educational process has been delivered, moving from traditional on-site education to online education. This qualitative study examined EFL students at the Language Center of the Catholic University of Cuenca in Ecuador. This study aimed to explore students' perceptions of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, it aimed to analyze students' perceptions regarding the tools used for online learning and the effectiveness of learning a second language online under forced learning conditions. To this end, a survey and questionnaire were used to collect data on the acceptance of online learning by students who had already experienced online learning mode. It also identified the factors that facilitated online learning and the challenges. The study's results provided information about the advantages and disadvantages of online education and recommendations for the continuity of EFL online learning.</p> María Gracia Flores Flores Antonio Lenin Argudo Garzón Copyright (c) 2023 María Gracia Flores Flores, Antonio Lenin Argudo Garzón 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 4 7 e23099 e23099 10.46652/runas.v4i7.99 The impact of reflective journals on the writing skills of EFL sophomore students <p style="font-weight: 400;">This research paper describes a mixed-methods study with a one group, pretest- posttest design that aimed to analyze the effects of writing reflective journals on the writing skills of 25 EFL sophomore learners. It also examined the participants’ perceptions of reflective journals as a learning strategy. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a pre-test and a post-test were applied to gather the quantitative data. The researchers employed a writing assessment rubric to score the pre- and post-tests to assess the students’ EFL proficiency level. And in the second phase, participants were required to fill out an open-ended questionnaire of six questions to collect the qualitative data. It was demonstrated that reflective journals had a positive impact on the participants’ writing skills development and that they were perceived as a helpful learning strategy to boost English proficiency. These findings could help EFL students improve their metacognitive skills, which are required in the Ecuadorian curriculum.</p> Alexandra Gabriela Demera Macías Tammy Fajardo Dack Copyright (c) 2023 Alexandra Gabriela Demera Macías, Tammy Fajardo Dack 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 4 7 e230100 e230100 10.46652/runas.v4i7.100 The Pedagogical use of Social Networks to improve Writing Skills with EFL Students from Nabón Third Grade High School <p style="font-weight: 400;">Social Networks have become essential resources for modern citizens in all aspects of life. It is a need in the whole features of society, and education is not an exception. The use of social media somehow could improve the students’ achievement in English language learning. The research proposal aims to investigate which Social Networks are the most useful for students from “Nabón High School” and incorporate social media in a lesson plan sample to motivate and help learners to develop their English Writing Skills in a dynamic context. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to carry out this study. The instrument used in this study includes a survey questionnaire that was conducted for students in Third Grade high school in a major computing system. During this process, students demonstrated their freedom of expression in the survey due to their practice through social media connections in their daily life. On the other hand, the gathered data revealed positive viewpoints on using Social Networks such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and TIKTOK. The research proposal suggests that teachers should change their teaching methods in order to make their classes more interesting by applying innovative strategies</p> Norma Guayllas Sarango Cristina Juca Castro Copyright (c) 2023 Norma Guayllas Sarango, Cristina Juca Castro 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 4 7 e230101 e230101 10.46652/runas.v4i7.101 Effects of brain breaks on EFL students’ writing skills at the tertiary level <p style="font-weight: 400;">There is increasing evidence for the connection between emotion, social functioning, and cognition in the education system. Research suggests that the application of brain breaks is a bridge between these relations and academic achievement and can serve as a viable approach to enhancing learners’ outcomes. However, existing studies on this approach are generally from elementary and secondary levels, thus leaving a gap in reports in higher level educational contexts. For the present study, an EFL university class was chosen as the sample subject of study to demonstrate the impact of brain breaks on students’ writing outcomes. Data were collected from both an experimental and control group during an 8-week intervention through a pre-test and a post-test. Qualitative data was collected through teacher observation and students’ surveys. Thus, an embedded sequential mixed methods design was implemented to understand the participants’ perceptions within the context of an experimental intervention. Given that university students spend more than 2 hours sitting, this study suggests that short brain breaks every 45 minutes enhanced cognitive operations associated with writing academic performance.</p> Nancy Orellana Parra Melita Vega Copyright (c) 2023 Nancy Orellana Parra, Melita Vega 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 4 7 e230102 e230102 10.46652/runas.v4i7.102