Runas. Journal of Education and Culture https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about <p><strong>RUNAS. Journal of Education and Culture</strong>, ISSN 2737-6230, is a refereed academic journal that publishes 2 issues per year (January-July and August-December). Founded in 2020, it seeks to publish articles related to education and culture around the world, in terms of reality verification, since these fields are interrelated as key elements of the development of peoples. We welcome contributions from researchers, academics, and young students with a critical, contextual vision that contributes to the dissemination of the reality of the fields described, mainly in peripheral countries, and their reflection on the alternatives/possibility of liberation.</p> <p>*<em><strong>"RUNAS</strong>"</em> is a word that comes from the Kichwa language of the indigenous peoples of Ecuador, used to refer to human beings.</p> CICSHAL-RELIGACION. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA - RELIGACIÓN en-US Runas. Journal of Education and Culture 2737-6230 Terra Ignota https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/72 <p>The Persian celebration of Yalda provides the opportunity to discuss the phenomenological dynamics of the Known (visible) and the Unknown (invisible). The concept of <em>Terra Ignota</em> is proposed along with the terms <em>parareality</em> and the <em>paratopic force</em> to frame an open interaction with the Unknown and the inessential ground of the Given (called also holomovement) transformed by the activity of time. This framing is performed under an epistemic horizon influenced by G. W. Leibniz, Giorgio Agamben, Sigmund Freud, Cornelius Castoriadis, Indian philosophy, and Plato. My postulate is that a unified vision of reality may be achieved through nondual models of reality beyond systems of representation with fixed identities.</p> Julio Martín Alcántara Carrera Copyright (c) 2022 Julio Martín Alcántara Carrera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 3 6 e21072 e21072 10.46652/runas.v3i6.72 For a de-construction of the migrant’s epistle in Juicio a un Estado y a un continente by Inongo Vi-Makomè and Ecos de Malabo by Maximiliano Nkogo Esono https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/71 <p class="p1">Evidence suggests that the question of migrations nowadays has become a major c hallenge of political, social and imaginary life of the «Tout-Monde» (Glissant, 1993). We are witnessing an accentuation of the intraAfrican, transAfrican and transcontinental migrations. In addition to South-South migrations, the migrations from Africa to Europe are which mass media pay more attention. The present article analyzes, from the novels <em>Juicio a un Estado y a un continente</em> by Inongo Vi-Makomè and <em>Ecos de Malabo</em> by Maximiliano Nkogo Esono, the perpetuation by sub-Saharan migrants of the only positive/idyllic image that Europe/Occident tries, successfully project across the world. The study has shown that the majority of migrants (or candidates for migration) particularly black Africans, such as Mvumba Essono and Miko, in the case at hand, become consciously or unconsciously faithful “ambassadors” or defenders of the Eldorado that Europeans/Occidentals strive to spread from their countries, drop points of migrants.</p> Tenon Kone Copyright (c) 2022 Tenon Kone https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 3 6 e21071 e21071 10.46652/runas.v3i6.71 Constitutional elements of control of cultural genocide in the natural resources sector: perspectives of the indigenous peoples of the Andean community https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/85 <p>This research work reconceptualizes the genocide of indigenous peoples by unraveling its cultural dimensions. Extractive and similar operations gradually deteriorate the land and the environment, exerting severe impacts on territorial rights, eventually leading to their physical and cultural annihilation. The article addresses the crime of genocide in both its physical and cultural dimensions, demanding its integration into IHRL and criminal law. Recent ethnographic research in Ecuador demonstrates how indigenous peoples are gradually exposed to genocidal policies despite strong legal frameworks. Said rights materialize in the form of prior consultation, territorial rights, prohibition of forced relocation, and maintenance of organizational and decision-making procedures.</p> Juan Pablo Montero Solano Copyright (c) 2022 Juan Pablo Montero Solano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 3 6 e21085 e21085 10.46652/runas.v3i6.85 Ecuadorian mining concession contract: a legislative study of the Organic Mining Law https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/86 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This research work focuses on the analysis of the legal environment in which the Mining Concession Contract is applied and developed in Ecuador in accordance with the Mining Law; Having that one of the parties involved in this agreement of wills is the Ecuadorian State, which obtained the first large-scale mining contract in the history of Ecuador. This study will allow defining the framework in which mining is developed as one of the strategic sectors of Ecuador, within the framework of the Constitutional State of Rights and Justice.</span></p> Estefanía Michelle Pérez Buenaño Melinton Fernando Saca Balladares Copyright (c) 2022 Estefanía Michelle Pérez Buenaño, Melinton Fernando Saca Balladares https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 3 6 e21086 e21086 10.46652/runas.v3i6.86 Emotions and learning in a pandemic context. A sociocultural approach in university students https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/74 <p class="p1">This research focused on the perceptions of university students regarding emotional affectations and the relationship they have with their learning based on their sociocultural context in times of pandemic. For this purpose, the sociological perspective of Pierre Bourdieu was recovered to articulate the production of subjectivities from their objective conditions. Methodologically, three moments were established: 1) detection of capitals for the educational transition; 2) construction of social classes based on their volume and capital structure and 3) relation of their perceptions about emotions and learning by constructed social classes. Among the main findings, students have a different volume and structure of capital (economic, cultural, and technological) that conditions their perceptions and dispositions in this educational transition, thus, sociocultural inequalities and their consequent segmentation affect a predisposition to present inadequate attention to emotional problems. In conclusion, it is assumed that socialization in the virtual educational field requires taking into consideration the fact that the social experience must deal with all the vital structures, including cognition, emotions, and the will of social agents.</p> Luis Arturo Guerrero Azpeitia Copyright (c) 2022 Luis Arturo Guerrero Azpeitia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-06 2021-12-06 3 6 e21074 e21074 10.46652/runas.v3i6.74 Active learning methodologies incorporating TIC’s to develop reading skills in the San Mateo from Manta Educational Unit https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/75 <p>The incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies, ICT, in teaching-learning processes improves the quality of education and allows communities to evolve. The exploration that is presented implies the improvement of reading skills, through digital resources, based on the following question: How to improve reading skills through the use of ICT in the students of the San Juan Educational Unit? Matthew? The present investigation reports the results by observing the didactic strategy in the teaching-learning of reading skills, which will later be helped by means of free software, to lead the student to process information. Methodologically, quasi-experimental research was applied from the qualitative and quantitative approach; the research sample was made up of the teaching staff whose number is 12. As data collection techniques, a survey and interview were used. The results showed that innovation is needed to improve reading skills and motivate teachers to improve the teaching-learning process of students; These skills are considered the basis of instruction in the different areas of knowledge. All this research serves to improve educational quality in students through the reading process and its comprehension as a skill.</p> Geovanny Javier Zambrano Menéndez Janneth Teresa Cano Delgado Copyright (c) 2022 Geovanny Javier Zambrano Menéndez, Janneth Teresa Cano Delgado https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 3 6 e21075 e21075 10.46652/runas.v3i6.75 The right to freedom: the radical pragmatism of prison resistance in protracted conflicts https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/87 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Prisons often function as epicenters of protracted conflicts, in which the state uses imprisonment and detention as a means of control, and detainees seek to use prison space for resistance, both internally and through solidarity with external networks. The objective of the present investigation consists of recognizing the aspects of the radical pragmatism of the prison resistance in Ecuador. The resistance of the prisoners is present in almost all prison spaces. However, in this article he focused on three contexts that, while politically, culturally, and geographically distinct, all represent protracted conflicts, such as protracted struggles by communal groups for basic needs such as security, recognition, acceptance, fair access to political institutions. and economic participation. Finally, it became clear that states use mass incarceration and arbitrary detention in an attempt to stifle resistance movements, especially in protracted post-empirical conflicts.</p> María Gabriela Acosta Morales Juan Pablo Montero Solano Segundo Ramiro Tite Copyright (c) 2022 María Gabriela Acosta Morales, Juan Pablo Montero Solano, Segundo Ramiro Tite https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 3 6 e21087 e21087 10.46652/runas.v3i6.87 Orthodox Marxists and the First World War: Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/77 <p class="p1">The aim of this article is to elucidate the theoretical and practical positions that the Orthodox Marxists–Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg according to Lukács–developed during the First World War within the international proletarian movement. In order to understand these positions, this work gives an account of the criticism they made of the chauvinist and opportunist currents, which abandoned the dialectical method in their research, within the Second International on war and peace. The positions reached by both Rosa Luxemburg and Lenin are the product of their correct understanding and fidelity to Marx’s way of proceeding in his works, in other words, to the dialectical method. In the absence of analyses of the correlation of class forces on an international scale from a perspective of the concrete totality, even within social movements that claim to be “leftist”, it becomes essential to return to the study of orthodox Marxists, with concrete dialectics, on international relations to understand both subjectively and objectively the capitalist mode of production today in transition to a new pattern of capital accumulation.</p> José Anuar Sayeg Salgado Copyright (c) 2022 José Anuar Sayeg Salgado https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-11 2022-12-11 3 6 e21077 e21077 10.46652/runas.v3i6.77 Misrepresented class consciousness in pre-capitalist and capitalist societies https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/83 <p class="p1">The question of class consciousness is for Georg Lukács a central element in his theoretical proposal, mainly in his famous book “History and class consciousness” published for the first time in 1923. That is why it is of the utmost importance to understand depth that class consciousness means for our philosophy, how it is generated, what its practical function is, etc., and in that same sense, it is also essential for a more complete and critical understanding of our author´s theoretical proposal, which will be the main objective of our text, which is to analyze what Lukács defines as false class consciousness. We will investigate and expose the theoretical elements that justify why for Lukács the non-proletarian classes have as one of their limits not being able to develop a true class consciousness by developing only a false class consciousness. This, mainly in order to understand why the proletariat is the only subject that has the possibility and responsibility to create a true class consciousness.</p> Christian Terrazas Sánchez Copyright (c) 2022 Christian Terrazas Sánchez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 3 6 e21083 e21083 10.46652/runas.v3i6.83 Subjectivity and organization in Georg Lukács’ History and class consciousness https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/73 <p class="p1">This paper assesses the concrete form of subjectivity and political organization in <em>History and class consciousness.</em> It posits that in this work, Lukács’ construes a synthesis of Lenin’s and Luxemburg’s conception regarding political organization. Both their proposals, as well as Lukács’s, are built around the form of the political party, which has been widely criticized by recent anti-systemic struggles. This paper tracks the reception of Lukács’s proposal for a political organization among specialists. Furthermore, it analyzes the transformation of his proposal by examining the texts that precede and follow the publication of <em>History and class consciousness</em>. Lastly it critically rebuilds the political proposal as it is contained in the classic 1923 text. The paper closes with a critical reflection regarding a possible way to update Lukács’ proposal.</p> Sergio Lomelí Copyright (c) 2022 Sergio Lomelí https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 3 6 e21073 e21073 10.46652/runas.v3i6.73 Ethics, Alienation, and Ontology: The impossible is the starting point of each possible https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/78 <p class="p1">The first quarter of the 21<sup>st</sup> century is reaching its end, and worldwide crises appear to become ubiquitous. Capitalist forces of destruction have not gone rogue, they merely represent the actualization of capitalist relations of exploitation. Notions of fettering fall prey to illusions, which overlook both particular historical moments and the essence of capitalist relations. In contrast, social emancipation presupposes an ontological understanding of human action. It is not enough to wish for a more humane society; both the limits of and potential for transformation must be understood. Based on Marx and Lukács, the ontological categories of possible and impossible, labour and teleology, are investigated, consequently, creating an opposing prerogative to capitalist naturalization and eternization. Capitalism is instead taken for what it is: a determined social, historical construction, thus, a superable social organization rather than a natural force. Insofar as the historical debacle of Marxism has provoked a methodological vacuum filled with relativism, contemporary critical analyses disaggregate into bourgeois isolated phenomena, becoming liberal assessments themselves. The concrete impact is not irrelevant: for they fight arguments in the fields chosen by capitalism; any perception of totality is rejected a priori; strategies to overcome capitalist challenges reproduce the conditions which create them, because it is assumed what needs to be explained. It appears urgent to reframe social critique within the frame of methodological orthodoxy. Marxist capitalist critique departs from ontological facts, for instance, labour. This means grasping both the totality and the ontological dimensions of particular forms, enabling effective strategies towards emancipation.</p> João Romeiro Hermeto Copyright (c) 2022 João Romeiro Hermeto https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 3 6 e21078 e21078 10.46652/runas.v3i6.78 History, anticipatory consciousness and utopia: the discussion between Georg Lukács and Ernst Bloch on Thomas Müntzer and the dialectical totality https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/76 <p class="p1">Based on Ernst Bloch’s review “Actuality and Utopia” (1923), on the work of his youth friend Georg Lukács, <em>History and Class Consciousness</em>, this article first reviews the coincidences between the two thinkers about recovering Hegelian dialectics and its concept of totality for historical materialism. Then we study the debate that both had about the german theologian Thomas Müntzer and the relevance of characterizing him as an abstract utopian or as a theologian of the revolution because in this discussion the place of utopia in the dialectical understanding of reality is crystallized. Finally, we analyze Bloch’s critique of the Lukacsian concept of totality in his review, for his inability to give space in social reality to religion (and other fields), the multiplicity of temporal rhythms and anticipatory consciousness, and his alternative proposal of the concept of the sphere, which subsumes the contributions of the totality, but also take to a higher level the dialectical understanding of reality.</p> Luis Rodrigo Wesche Lira Copyright (c) 2022 Luis Rodrigo Wesche Lira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 3 6 e21076 e21076 10.46652/runas.v3i6.76 Reification and global capitalism. The colonial and imperialist question from History and Class Consciousness https://runas.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/84 <p class="p1">This paper revisits the concept of reification and the topic of the colonial and imperial problem in Georg Lukács’s <em>History and Class Consciousness</em>. Drawing from the Global Labour History and the postcolonial criticism of the industrial workerist focus on this book, we expose a reformulation of the concept of reification, based on abstract labor (instead of the commodity), from which we propose the concepts of <em>domination</em> (Postone) and <em>racialization</em> (Quijano) as derivative forms of reification which are applicable to the peripheral spaces of the capitalist expansion.</p> George García Quesada Copyright (c) 2022 George García Quesada https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 3 6 e21084 e21084 10.46652/runas.v3i6.84